# Controllability Issues for Continuous-Spectrum Systems and Ensemble Controllability of Bloch Equations

Authors: K. Beauchard, J.M. Coron, P. Rouchon Communications in Mathematical Physics, Vol 296, no 2 pp. 525-557 DOI: 10.1007/s00220-010-1008-9

We study the controllability of the Bloch equation, for an ensemble of non interacting half-spins, in a static magnetic field, with dispersion in the Larmor frequency. This system may be seen as a prototype for infinite dimensional bilinear systems with continuous spectrum, whose controllability is not well understood. We provide several mathematical answers, with discrimination between approximate and exact controllability, and between finite time or infinite time controllability: this system is not exactly controllable in finite time T with bounded controls in L 2(0, T), but it is approximately controllable in L ∞ in finite time with unbounded controls in L-infinity-loc[0,.infinity). Moreover, we propose explicit controls realizing the asymptotic exact controllability to a uniform state of spin + 1/2 or −1/2.

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BibTeX:

@Article{,

author = {J.M. Coron K. Beauchard, P. Rouchon},

title = {Controllability Issues for Continuous-Spectrum Systems and Ensemble Controllability of Bloch Equations},

journal = {Communications in Mathematical Physics},

volume = {296},

number = {2},

pages = {525-557},

year = {2010},

abstract = {We study the controllability of the Bloch equation, for an ensemble of non interacting half-spins, in a static magnetic field, with dispersion in the Larmor frequency. This system may be seen as a prototype for infinite dimensional bilinear systems with continuous spectrum, whose controllability is not well understood. We provide several mathematical answers, with discrimination between approximate and exact controllability, and between finite time or infinite time controllability: this system is not exactly controllable in finite time T with bounded controls in L 2(0, T), but it is approximately controllable in L ∞ in finite time with unbounded controls in L-infinity-loc[0,.infinity). Moreover, we propose explicit controls realizing the asymptotic exact controllability to a uniform state of spin + 1/2 or −1/2.},

location = {},

keywords = {}}

We study the controllability of the Bloch equation, for an ensemble of non interacting half-spins, in a static magnetic field, with dispersion in the Larmor frequency. This system may be seen as a prototype for infinite dimensional bilinear systems with continuous spectrum, whose controllability is not well understood. We provide several mathematical answers, with discrimination between approximate and exact controllability, and between finite time or infinite time controllability: this system is not exactly controllable in finite time T with bounded controls in L 2(0, T), but it is approximately controllable in L ∞ in finite time with unbounded controls in L-infinity-loc[0,.infinity). Moreover, we propose explicit controls realizing the asymptotic exact controllability to a uniform state of spin + 1/2 or −1/2.

Download PDF

BibTeX:

@Article{,

author = {J.M. Coron K. Beauchard, P. Rouchon},

title = {Controllability Issues for Continuous-Spectrum Systems and Ensemble Controllability of Bloch Equations},

journal = {Communications in Mathematical Physics},

volume = {296},

number = {2},

pages = {525-557},

year = {2010},

abstract = {We study the controllability of the Bloch equation, for an ensemble of non interacting half-spins, in a static magnetic field, with dispersion in the Larmor frequency. This system may be seen as a prototype for infinite dimensional bilinear systems with continuous spectrum, whose controllability is not well understood. We provide several mathematical answers, with discrimination between approximate and exact controllability, and between finite time or infinite time controllability: this system is not exactly controllable in finite time T with bounded controls in L 2(0, T), but it is approximately controllable in L ∞ in finite time with unbounded controls in L-infinity-loc[0,.infinity). Moreover, we propose explicit controls realizing the asymptotic exact controllability to a uniform state of spin + 1/2 or −1/2.},

location = {},

keywords = {}}